In all countries, there is a very negative link between bargaining coverage and wage inequality, as measured by the P1/P10 rate of pay. Coverage accounts for 50% of the variance in wage inequality in the 32 OECD member countries (Visser et al. 2015). While rising inequality has a negative impact on growth (IMF in 2014; OECD 2014), international and domestic policymakers should think twice before weakening the institutions underlying inclusive and coordinated collective bargaining. Among these institutions, negotiations with several employers on the level of sole proprietorships are the most important. The level of negotiations represents 70% of the transnational variance in tariff coverage in a sample of 48 countries (Visser et al. 2015). The generic term refers to agreements between trade unions and employers or employers` organisations (see the capacity of the collective agreement) to regulate both individual and direct employment relations between the signatory parties (see below, content). The Portuguese Constitution lays the foundations for the legal institutionalisation of collective bargaining in order to confer on trade unions the competence to exercise the right to bargain (Article 56(3)(4)). The normative effects of collective agreements are expressly recognized by law (article 12 of the Employment Contracts Act), which places them among the legal sources of employment contracts (see sources of labour law). Therefore, the provisions of the collective agreements apply directly to the various employment relationships and replace all contractual conditions that are less favourable to the workers concerned. With the end of the national agreement in 2010, government intervention was the only source of coordination in Greece.
There is some evidence that prior to 2010, “protected” sectors (utilities and public monopolies such as electricity, telecommunications, airways, banks, railways, etc.) had a leading role compared to “exposed” sectors, mainly in manufacturing and trade. “(Ioannou 1998: 103), but this certainly has an end and the current situation is a corporate negotiation without horizontal coordination. After the end of 22 years of tripartite collective agreements, Ireland has returned to largely unregulated collective bargaining at company level. The Irish Confederation of Trade Unions and the Economy has not completely severed relations, but has signed a protocol with some bargaining principles at company level, but these do not try to allow horizontal coordination of wage demands or comparisons and do not set strict rules for the settlement of disputes over the recognition of trade unions, a very controversial subject even before the disintegration of social partnership (Regan 2013). One of the distinguishing features of industrial relations in the United Kingdom is that collective agreements between trade unions and employers are not legally binding, as it is considered that the parties do not intend the agreement to be legally applicable. . . .